Leslie's historic UK Guide Badge Syllabuses

Subtitle

 

1957 POR - Air Service Certificate


Aeromodeller

1) Construct a model plane from a printed plan, showing that she understands:

The directions given; the necessity for longitudinal and lateral stability; the value of aspect-ratio of the wings and tailplane in giving lift.

2) Fly a model of her own construction with a Model Flying Club.

3) Know the precautions to take to prevent damage to plane and property.  Repair a damaged model.

Note: A high standard of craftsmanship is required throughout.


Aircraft Recognition

1) Make a list of the component parts of an aircraft and state their functions.

2) Know the general characteristics of: a heavy bomber, a freighter, an airliner, a fighter aircraft, a jet propelled aircraft, a light club aircraft, a helicopter.

3) Recognise from silhouettes and photographs twenty aircraft; identify ten normally seen flying over her part of the country.


Air Crew

1) Hold the Leading Air Ranger badge and prove that her knowledge is up to date.

2) a) Keep a flying log (minimum flying time three hours either as a passenger or pupil), the log to specify type of aircraft, course, height, and speed.

b) Describe the interior layout and emergency facilities of this type of aircraft.

3) Know the safety precautions to be taken by a pilot before taking off.

4) Be able to read at least three aircraft instruments other than the air-speed indicator and altimeter, and know their purpose.

5) Know:

a) The rules of the air.

b) The certificate and licences required to be carried by a pilot when:

i) Flying in the home country.

ii) On a flight to a foreign country.

6) Understand what is meat by 'control zone' and 'airways'.


Air Mechanic

1) Understand the elementary principles of an internal combustion engine.

2) a) Know the difference between an air-cooled and a liquid-cooled aero engine.

b) Describe the functions of the following: fuel system, oil system, carburetor, ignition system, starting magneto, and impulse starter.

3) Understand the use of sparking plugs; test, remove, clean, and replace them.

4) Know the precautions necessary when refueling an aircraft.

5) Understand the movement of the control surfaces and trimming tabs of an aircraft or glider; be able to check each for full and correct movement.

6) Be able to detect corrosion, and apply treatment, including preventive treatment.

7) Demonstrate soft-soldering.


Glider Crew

1) Know the materials from which a normal glider is constructed, and the form of the construction.

2) Know how to rig at least one type of glider, and be capable of carrying out an inspection of safety before flight.

3) Know three methods of launching gliders; have assisted in at least one launching; understand the principles and practice of winch operation.

4) Demonstrate how to inspect and repair a launching cable by splicing and knotting; describe the purpose of weak lings and be able to make them.

5) Demonstrate the handling of a glider on the ground; know how to picket it, where it should be placed for launching, and what signals to give to the winch driver or tug pilot.

6) Be able to repair a small hole in the fabric or plywood skin of any part of the glider.


Meteorology

1) Describe the general characteristics associated with: a warm front, a cold front, a high-pressure area, a low-pressure area.

2) Classify the main types of cloud and describe their appearance; explain which are useful to a sailplane pilot, and why.

3) Explain the following: Buys-Ballot's law, isobar, geostrophic, dew point, tropo-pause.

4) Explain the use of the following: a wet-and-dry bulb thermometer, an anemometer, a barometer.

5) Interpret a standard weather map and make a route forecast for an imaginary flight at a given time.

6) Describe the purpose, work, and methods of the International Meteorological Organisation.


Navigation

1) Explain what is meant by the following: latitude, longitude, cardinal points, quadrantal points, great circle, rhumb line, small circle.

2) Understand the elementary principles of map-projection; interpret in detail an aviation map and aerial photograph.

3) Understand the principles and use of a magnetic compass, and explain the following: magnetic dip, northerly turning error; variation and deviation.

4) Understand the use of the triangle of velocities, and explain the following: air speed, ground speed, track course, wind velocity, drift bearing.

5) Work out a course on a navigational computer, given the track required, wind velocity, and true air speed; prepare a route card for the flight, flying by map reading.


Theory Of Flight

1) Describe the airflow over the wing of an aircraft, and explain the meaning of: downwash, centre of pressure, aspect-ratio, angle of attack, stalling angle.

2) Analyse the drag on an aeroplane - wing drag, parasite drag, and cooling drag - and explain how the drag can be reduced.

3) Explain how the stalling speed may be reduced by the use of slots and/or flaps.

4) Understand what stability means in the three planes, and how it is achieved.

5) Understand the meaning of: dihedral, yawing, rolling, pitching, sideslip, aileron drag, slip-stream and mass balance.

6) Explain the use of trimming devices.

1960 POR - Air Service Certificate


Aeromodeller

1) Construct a model plane from a printed plan, showing that she understands:

The directions given; the necessity for longitudinal and lateral stability; the value of aspect-ratio of the wings and tailplane in giving lift.

2) Fly a model of her own construction with a Model Flying Club.

3) Know the precautions to take to prevent damage to plane and property.  Repair a damaged model.

Note: A high standard of craftsmanship is required throughout.


Aircraft Recognition

1) Make a list of the component parts of an aircraft and state their functions.

2) Know the general characteristics of: a heavy bomber, a freighter, an airliner, a fighter aircraft, a jet propelled aircraft, a light club aircraft, a helicopter.

3) Recognise from silhouettes and photographs twenty aircraft; identify ten normally seen flying over her part of the country.


Air Crew

1) Hold the Leading Air Ranger badge and prove that her knowledge is up to date.

2) a) Keep a flying log (minimum flying time three hours either as a passenger or pupil), the log to specify type of aircraft, course, height, and speed.

b) Describe the interior layout and emergency facilities of this type of aircraft.

3) Know the safety precautions to be taken by a pilot before taking off.

4) Be able to read at least three aircraft instruments other than the air-speed indicator and altimeter, and know their purpose.

5) Know:

a) The rules of the air.

b) The certificate and licences required to be carried by a pilot when:

i) Flying in the home country.

ii) On a flight to a foreign country.

6) Understand what is meat by 'control zone' and 'airways'.


Air Hostess

1) Personal 

a) Have proved herself a smart and capable Ranger of the previous six months.

b Wear uniform to perfection; know ho to keep it free form stains and creases.

c) Know how to use cosmetics discretely and to the best advantage.

d) Answer questions on personal hygiene.

2) First Aid Safety, and Emergency Measures.

a) Pass Clause 4 of the Leading Air Ranger test.  Be able to use the contents of any first aid box supplied at the test.

b) Have examined the inside of a passenger aircraft.  Know the emergency evacuation rules.  Be able to give clear instructions on how to fasten and release the various types of seat-belt-extensions, and how to put on a life jacket.  Understand the use of escape ropes and the best method of getting out of port holes.

c) Know the smoking regulations in force in an airport and aircraft.  Show that she is alive to the danger of careless disposal of cigarette ends.

3) Observation

Prove that she can distinguish between at least twelve persons through connecting their names with their appearance, idiosyncracies, and belongings.

4) Children

a) Pass clause 7 of the Ranger Service Star.

b) Understand the hostess's responsibility regarding unaccompanied children.  Know how to keep a child of any age happily and quietly occupied in his seat; how to assist him in any situation that might commonly arise; how to give a report when handing him and his belongings over to another person.

5) Service to Passengers

a) Prepare and serve food in a hygenic manner.  Set two trays and carry them gracefully, one in each hand.  Demonstrate 'spoon and fork' service.

b) make tea and coffee remembering the variation of boiling point at height.

c) Prepare a baby's bottle with given materials; scald it after use.

d) Know  how to keep passenger quarters clean.  Make up a berth.

6) Languages

a) Be able to express herself in good English.  Have sufficient knowledge of another language (preferably Spanish) to deal with normal requirements.  Show that she can receive and impart information through signs.

b) Give a five minute talk explaining some point included in thy syllabus to be selected by the tester; or sustain a conversation with a stranger for five minutes.

Note: Throughout the test the candidate's poise, tact, and common sense are to be taken into account.


Air Mechanic

1) Understand the elementary principles of an internal combustion engine.

2) a) Know the difference between an air-cooled and a liquid-cooled aero engine.

b) Describe the functions of the following: fuel system, oil system, carburetor, ignition system, starting magneto, and impulse starter.

3) Understand the use of sparking plugs; test, remove, clean, and replace them.

4) Know the precautions necessary when refueling an aircraft.

5) Understand the movement of the control surfaces and trimming tabs of an aircraft or glider; be able to check each for full and correct movement.

6) Be able to detect corrosion, and apply treatment, including preventive treatment.

7) Demonstrate soft-soldering.


Glider Crew

1) Know the materials from which a normal glider is constructed, and the form of the construction.

2) Know how to rig at least one type of glider, and be capable of carrying out an inspection of safety before flight.

3) Know three methods of launching gliders; have assisted in at least one launching; understand the principles and practice of winch operation.

4) Demonstrate how to inspect and repair a launching cable by splicing and knotting; describe the purpose of weak lings and be able to make them.

5) Demonstrate the handling of a glider on the ground; know how to picket it, where it should be placed for launching, and what signals to give to the winch driver or tug pilot.

6) Be able to repair a small hole in the fabric or plywood skin of any part of the glider.


Meteorology

1) Describe the general characteristics associated with: a warm front, a cold front, a high-pressure area, a low-pressure area.

2) Classify the main types of cloud and describe their appearance; explain which are useful to a sailplane pilot, and why.

3) Explain the following: Buys-Ballot's law, isobar, geostrophic, dew point, tropo-pause.

4) Explain the use of the following: a wet-and-dry bulb thermometer, an anemometer, a barometer.

5) Interpret a standard weather map and make a route forecast for an imaginary flight at a given time.

6) Describe the purpose, work, and methods of the International Meteorological Organisation.


Navigation

1) Explain what is meant by the following: latitude, longitude, cardinal points, quadrantal points, great circle, rhumb line, small circle.

2) Understand the elementary principles of map-projection; interpret in detail an aviation map and aerial photograph.

3) Understand the principles and use of a magnetic compass, and explain the following: magnetic dip, northerly turning error; variation and deviation.

4) Understand the use of the triangle of velocities, and explain the following: air speed, ground speed, track course, wind velocity, drift bearing.

5) Work out a course on a navigational computer, given the track required, wind velocity, and true air speed; prepare a route card for the flight, flying by map reading.


Theory Of Flight

1) Describe the airflow over the wing of an aircraft, and explain the meaning of: downwash, centre of pressure, aspect-ratio, angle of attack, stalling angle.

2) Analyse the drag on an aeroplane - wing drag, parasite drag, and cooling drag - and explain how the drag can be reduced.

3) Explain how the stalling speed may be reduced by the use of slots and/or flaps.

4) Understand what stability means in the three planes, and how it is achieved.

5) Understand the meaning of: dihedral, yawing, rolling, pitching, sideslip, aileron drag, slip-stream and mass balance.

6) Explain the use of trimming devices.

1961 (July) POR - Air Service Certificate


Aeromodeller

1) Construct a model plane from a printed plan, showing that she understands:

The directions given; the necessity for longitudinal and lateral stability; the value of aspect-ratio of the wings and tailplane in giving lift.

2) Fly a model of her own construction with a Model Flying Club.

3) Know the precautions to take to prevent damage to plane and property.  Repair a damaged model.

Note: A high standard of craftsmanship is required throughout.


Aircraft Recognition

1) Make a list of the component parts of an aircraft and state their functions.

2) Know the general characteristics of: a heavy bomber, a freighter, an airliner, a fighter aircraft, a jet propelled aircraft, a light club aircraft, a helicopter.

3) Recognise from silhouettes and photographs twenty aircraft; identify ten normally seen flying over her part of the country.


Air Crew

1) Hold the Leading Air Ranger badge and prove that her knowledge is up to date.

2) a) Keep a flying log (minimum flying time three hours either as a passenger or pupil), the log to specify type of aircraft, course, height, and speed.

b) Describe the interior layout and emergency facilities of this type of aircraft.

3) Know the safety precautions to be taken by a pilot before taking off.

4) Be able to read at least three aircraft instruments other than the air-speed indicator and altimeter, and know their purpose.

5) Know:

a) The rules of the air.

b) The certificate and licences required to be carried by a pilot when:

i) Flying in the home country.

ii) On a flight to a foreign country.

6) Understand what is meat by 'control zone' and 'airways'.


Air Hostess

1) Personal 

a) Have proved herself a smart and capable Ranger of the previous six months.

b Wear uniform to perfection; know ho to keep it free form stains and creases.

c) Know how to use cosmetics discretely and to the best advantage.

d) Answer questions on personal hygiene.

2) First Aid Safety, and Emergency Measures.

a) Pass Clause 4 of the Leading Air Ranger test.  Be able to use the contents of any first aid box supplied at the test.

b) Have examined the inside of a passenger aircraft.  Know the emergency evacuation rules.  Be able to give clear instructions on how to fasten and release the various types of seat-belt-extensions, and how to put on a life jacket.  Understand the use of escape ropes and the best method of getting out of port holes.

c) Know the smoking regulations in force in an airport and aircraft.  Show that she is alive to the danger of careless disposal of cigarette ends.

3) Observation

Prove that she can distinguish between at least twelve persons through connecting their names with their appearance, idiosyncracies, and belongings.

4) Children

a) Pass clause 7 of the Ranger Service Star.

b) Understand the hostess's responsibility regarding unaccompanied children.  Know how to keep a child of any age happily and quietly occupied in his seat; how to assist him in any situation that might commonly arise; how to give a report when handing him and his belongings over to another person.

5) Service to Passengers

a) Prepare and serve food in a hygenic manner.  Set two trays and carry them gracefully, one in each hand.  Demonstrate 'spoon and fork' service.

b) make tea and coffee remembering the variation of boiling point at height.

c) Prepare a baby's bottle with given materials; scald it after use.

d) Know  how to keep passenger quarters clean.  Make up a berth.

6) Languages

a) Be able to express herself in good English.  Have sufficient knowledge of another language (preferably Spanish) to deal with normal requirements.  Show that she can receive and impart information through signs.

b) Give a five minute talk explaining some point included in thy syllabus to be selected by the tester; or sustain a conversation with a stranger for five minutes.

Note: Throughout the test the candidate's poise, tact, and common sense are to be taken into account.


Air Mechanic

1) Understand the elementary principles of an internal combustion engine.

2) a) Know the difference between an air-cooled and a liquid-cooled aero engine.

b) Describe the functions of the following: fuel system, oil system, carburetor, ignition system, starting magneto, and impulse starter.

3) Understand the use of sparking plugs; test, remove, clean, and replace them.

4) Know the precautions necessary when refueling an aircraft.

5) Understand the movement of the control surfaces and trimming tabs of an aircraft or glider; be able to check each for full and correct movement.

6) Be able to detect corrosion, and apply treatment, including preventive treatment.

7) Demonstrate soft-soldering.


Glider Crew

1) Know the materials from which a normal glider is constructed, and the form of the construction.

2) Know how to rig at least one type of glider, and be capable of carrying out an inspection of safety before flight.

3) Know three methods of launching gliders; have assisted in at least one launching; understand the principles and practice of winch operation.

4) Demonstrate how to inspect and repair a launching cable by splicing and knotting; describe the purpose of weak lings and be able to make them.

5) Demonstrate the handling of a glider on the ground; know how to picket it, where it should be placed for launching, and what signals to give to the winch driver or tug pilot.

6) Be able to repair a small hole in the fabric or plywood skin of any part of the glider.


Meteorology

1) Describe the general characteristics associated with: a warm front, a cold front, a high-pressure area, a low-pressure area.

2) Classify the main types of cloud and describe their appearance; explain which are useful to a sailplane pilot, and why.

3) Explain the following: Buys-Ballot's law, isobar, geostrophic, dew point, tropo-pause.

4) Explain the use of the following: a wet-and-dry bulb thermometer, an anemometer, a barometer.

5) Interpret a standard weather map and make a route forecast for an imaginary flight at a given time.

6) Describe the purpose, work, and methods of the International Meteorological Organisation.


Navigation

1) Explain what is meant by the following: latitude, longitude, cardinal points, quadrantal points, great circle, rhumb line, small circle.

2) Understand the elementary principles of map-projection; interpret in detail an aviation map and aerial photograph.

3) Understand the principles and use of a magnetic compass, and explain the following: magnetic dip, northerly turning error; variation and deviation.

4) Understand the use of the triangle of velocities, and explain the following: air speed, ground speed, track course, wind velocity, drift bearing.

5) Work out a course on a navigational computer, given the track required, wind velocity, and true air speed; prepare a route card for the flight, flying by map reading.


Theory Of Flight

1) Describe the airflow over the wing of an aircraft, and explain the meaning of: downwash, centre of pressure, aspect-ratio, angle of attack, stalling angle.

2) Analyse the drag on an aeroplane - wing drag, parasite drag, and cooling drag - and explain how the drag can be reduced.

3) Explain how the stalling speed may be reduced by the use of slots and/or flaps.

4) Understand what stability means in the three planes, and how it is achieved.

5) Understand the meaning of: dihedral, yawing, rolling, pitching, sideslip, aileron drag, slip-stream and mass balance.

6) Explain the use of trimming devices.

1964 (March) POR - Air Service Certificate


Aeromodeller

1) Construct a model plane from a printed plan, showing that she understands:

The directions given; the necessity for longitudinal and lateral stability; the value of aspect-ratio of the wings and tailplane in giving lift.

2) Fly a model of her own construction with a Model Flying Club.

3) Know the precautions to take to prevent damage to plane and property.  Repair a damaged model.

Note: A high standard of craftsmanship is required throughout.


Aircraft Recognition

1) Make a list of the component parts of an aircraft and state their functions.

2) Know the general characteristics of: a heavy bomber, a freighter, an airliner, a fighter aircraft, a jet propelled aircraft, a light club aircraft, a helicopter.

3) Recognise from silhouettes and photographs twenty aircraft; identify ten normally seen flying over her part of the country.


Air Crew

1) Hold the Leading Air Ranger badge and prove that her knowledge is up to date.

2) a) Keep a flying log (minimum flying time three hours either as a passenger or pupil), the log to specify type of aircraft, course, height, and speed.

b) Describe the interior layout and emergency facilities of this type of aircraft.

3) Know the safety precautions to be taken by a pilot before taking off.

4) Be able to read at least three aircraft instruments other than the air-speed indicator and altimeter, and know their purpose.

5) Know:

a) The rules of the air.

b) The certificate and licences required to be carried by a pilot when:

i) Flying in the home country.

ii) On a flight to a foreign country.

6) Understand what is meat by 'control zone' and 'airways'.


Air Hostess

1) Personal 

a) Have proved herself a smart and capable Ranger of the previous six months.

b Wear uniform to perfection; know ho to keep it free form stains and creases.

c) Know how to use cosmetics discretely and to the best advantage.

d) Answer questions on personal hygiene.

2) First Aid Safety, and Emergency Measures.

a) Pass Clause 4 of the Leading Air Ranger test.  Be able to use the contents of any first aid box supplied at the test.

b) Have examined the inside of a passenger aircraft.  Know the emergency evacuation rules.  Be able to give clear instructions on how to fasten and release the various types of seat-belt-extensions, and how to put on a life jacket.  Understand the use of escape ropes and the best method of getting out of port holes.

c) Know the smoking regulations in force in an airport and aircraft.  Show that she is alive to the danger of careless disposal of cigarette ends.

3) Observation

Prove that she can distinguish between at least twelve persons through connecting their names with their appearance, idiosyncracies, and belongings.

4) Children

a) Pass clause 7 of the Ranger Service Star.

b) Understand the hostess's responsibility regarding unaccompanied children.  Know how to keep a child of any age happily and quietly occupied in his seat; how to assist him in any situation that might commonly arise; how to give a report when handing him and his belongings over to another person.

5) Service to Passengers

a) Prepare and serve food in a hygenic manner.  Set two trays and carry them gracefully, one in each hand.  Demonstrate 'spoon and fork' service.

b) make tea and coffee remembering the variation of boiling point at height.

c) Prepare a baby's bottle with given materials; scald it after use.

d) Know  how to keep passenger quarters clean.  Make up a berth.

6) Languages

a) Be able to express herself in good English.  Have sufficient knowledge of another language (preferably Spanish) to deal with normal requirements.  Show that she can receive and impart information through signs.

b) Give a five minute talk explaining some point included in thy syllabus to be selected by the tester; or sustain a conversation with a stranger for five minutes.

Note: Throughout the test the candidate's poise, tact, and common sense are to be taken into account.


Air Mechanic

1) Understand the elementary principles of an internal combustion engine.

2) a) Know the difference between an air-cooled and a liquid-cooled aero engine.

b) Describe the functions of the following: fuel system, oil system, carburetor, ignition system, starting magneto, and impulse starter.

3) Understand the use of sparking plugs; test, remove, clean, and replace them.

4) Know the precautions necessary when refueling an aircraft.

5) Understand the movement of the control surfaces and trimming tabs of an aircraft or glider; be able to check each for full and correct movement.

6) Be able to detect corrosion, and apply treatment, including preventive treatment.

7) Demonstrate soft-soldering.


Glider Crew

1) Know the materials from which a normal glider is constructed, and the form of the construction.

2) Know how to rig at least one type of glider, and be capable of carrying out an inspection of safety before flight.

3) Know three methods of launching gliders; have assisted in at least one launching; understand the principles and practice of winch operation.

4) Demonstrate how to inspect and repair a launching cable by splicing and knotting; describe the purpose of weak lings and be able to make them.

5) Demonstrate the handling of a glider on the ground; know how to picket it, where it should be placed for launching, and what signals to give to the winch driver or tug pilot.

6) Be able to repair a small hole in the fabric or plywood skin of any part of the glider.


Meteorology

1) Describe the general characteristics associated with: a warm front, a cold front, a high-pressure area, a low-pressure area.

2) Classify the main types of cloud and describe their appearance; explain which are useful to a sailplane pilot, and why.

3) Explain the following: Buys-Ballot's law, isobar, geostrophic, dew point, tropo-pause.

4) Explain the use of the following: a wet-and-dry bulb thermometer, an anemometer, a barometer.

5) Interpret a standard weather map and make a route forecast for an imaginary flight at a given time.

6) Describe the purpose, work, and methods of the International Meteorological Organisation.


Navigation

1) Explain what is meant by the following: latitude, longitude, cardinal points, quadrantal points, great circle, rhumb line, small circle.

2) Understand the elementary principles of map-projection; interpret in detail an aviation map and aerial photograph.

3) Understand the principles and use of a magnetic compass, and explain the following: magnetic dip, northerly turning error; variation and deviation.

4) Understand the use of the triangle of velocities, and explain the following: air speed, ground speed, track course, wind velocity, drift bearing.

5) Work out a course on a navigational computer, given the track required, wind velocity, and true air speed; prepare a route card for the flight, flying by map reading.


Theory Of Flight

1) Describe the airflow over the wing of an aircraft, and explain the meaning of: downwash, centre of pressure, aspect-ratio, angle of attack, stalling angle.

2) Analyse the drag on an aeroplane - wing drag, parasite drag, and cooling drag - and explain how the drag can be reduced.

3) Explain how the stalling speed may be reduced by the use of slots and/or flaps.

4) Understand what stability means in the three planes, and how it is achieved.

5) Understand the meaning of: dihedral, yawing, rolling, pitching, sideslip, aileron drag, slip-stream and mass balance.

6) Explain the use of trimming devices.

1965 (July) POR - Air Service Certificate


Aeromodeller

1) Construct a model plane from a printed plan, showing that she understands:

The directions given; the necessity for longitudinal and lateral stability; the value of aspect-ratio of the wings and tailplane in giving lift.

2) Fly a model of her own construction with a Model Flying Club.

3) Know the precautions to take to prevent damage to plane and property.  Repair a damaged model.

Note: A high standard of craftsmanship is required throughout.


Aircraft Recognition

1) Make a list of the component parts of an aircraft and state their functions.

2) Know the general characteristics of: a heavy bomber, a freighter, an airliner, a fighter aircraft, a jet propelled aircraft, a light club aircraft, a helicopter.

3) Recognize from silhouettes and photographs twenty aircraft; identify ten normally seen flying over her part of the country.


Air Crew

1) Have passed the Leading Air Ranger badge and prove that her knowledge is up to date.

2) a) Keep a flying log (minimum flying time three hours either as a passenger or pupil), the log to specify type of aircraft, course, height, and speed.

b) Describe the interior layout and emergency facilities of this type of aircraft.

3) Know the safety precautions to be taken by a pilot before taking off.

4) Be able to read at least three aircraft instruments other than the air-speed indicator and altimeter, and know their purpose.

5) Know:

a) The rules of the air.

b) The certificate and licences required to be carried by a pilot when:

i) Flying in the home country.

ii) On a flight to a foreign country.

6) Understand what is meat by 'control zone' and 'airways'.


Air Hostess

1) Personal 

a) Have proved herself a smart and capable Ranger over the previous six months.

b Wear uniform to perfection; know ho to keep it free form stains and creases.

c) Know how to use cosmetics discretely and to the best advantage.

d) Answer questions on personal hygiene.

2) First Aid Safety, and Emergency Measures.

a) Pass Clause 4 of the Leading Air Ranger test.  Be able to use the contents of any first aid box supplied at the test.

b) Have examined the inside of a passenger aircraft.  Know the emergency evacuation rules.  Be able to give clear instructions on how to fasten and release the various types of seat-belt-extensions, and how to put on a life jacket.  Understand the use of escape ropes and the best method of getting out of port holes.

c) Know the smoking regulations in force in an airport and aircraft.  Show that she is alive to the danger of careless disposal of cigarette ends.

3) Observation

Prove that she can distinguish between at least twelve persons through connecting their names with their appearance, idiosyncracies, and belongings.

4) Children

a) Pass clause 7 of the Ranger Service Star.

b) Understand the hostess's responsibility regarding unaccompanied children.  Know how to keep a child of any age happily and quietly occupied in his seat; how to assist him in any situation that might commonly arise; how to give a report when handing him and his belongings over to another person.

5) Service to Passengers

a) Prepare and serve food in a hygenic manner.  Set two trays and carry them gracefully, one in each hand.  Demonstrate 'spoon and fork' service.

b) make tea and coffee remembering the variation of boiling point at height.

c) Prepare a baby's bottle with given materials; scald it after use.

d) Know  how to keep passenger quarters clean.  Make up a berth.

6) Languages

a) Be able to express herself in good English.  Have sufficient knowledge of another language (preferably Spanish) to deal with normal requirements.  Show that she can receive and impart information through signs.

b) Give a five minute talk explaining some point included in the syllabus to be selected by the tester; or sustain a conversation with a stranger for five minutes.

Note: Throughout the test the candidate's poise, tact, and common sense are to be taken into account.


Air Mechanic

1) Understand the elementary principles of an internal combustion engine.

2) a) Know the difference between an air-cooled and a liquid-cooled aero engine.

b) Describe the functions of the following: fuel system, oil system, carburetor, ignition system, starting magneto, and impulse starter.

3) Understand the use of sparking plugs; test, remove, clean, and replace them.

4) Know the precautions necessary when refueling an aircraft.

5) Understand the movement of the control surfaces and trimming tabs of an aircraft or glider; be able to check each for full and correct movement.

6) Be able to detect corrosion, and apply treatment, including preventive treatment.

7) Demonstrate soft-soldering.


Glider Crew

1) Know the materials from which a normal glider is constructed, and the form of the construction.

2) Know how to rig at least one type of glider, and be capable of carrying out an inspection of safety before flight.

3) Know three methods of launching gliders; have assisted in at least one launching; understand the principles and practice of winch operation.

4) Demonstrate how to inspect and repair a launching cable by splicing and knotting; describe the purpose of weak links and be able to make them.

5) Demonstrate the handling of a glider on the ground; know how to picket it, where it should be placed for launching, and what signals to give to the winch driver or tug pilot.

6) Be able to repair a small hole in the fabric or plywood skin of any part of the glider.


Meteorology

1) Describe the general characteristics associated with: a warm front, a cold front, a high-pressure area, a low-pressure area.

2) Classify the main types of cloud and describe their appearance; explain which are useful to a sailplane pilot, and why.

3) Explain the following: Buys-Ballot's law, isobar, geostrophic, dew point, tropo-pause.

4) Explain the use of the following: a wet-and-dry bulb thermometer, an anemometer, a barometer.

5) Interpret a standard weather map and make a route forecast for an imaginary flight at a given time.

6) Describe the purpose, work, and methods of the International Meteorological Organisation.


Navigation

1) Explain what is meant by the following: latitude, longitude, cardinal points, quadrantal points, great circle, rhumb line, small circle.

2) Understand the elementary principles of map-projection; interpret in detail an aviation map and aerial photograph.

3) Understand the principles and use of a magnetic compass, and explain the following: magnetic dip, northerly turning error; variation and deviation.

4) Understand the use of the triangle of velocities, and explain the following: air speed, ground speed, track course, wind velocity, drift bearing.

5) Work out a course on a navigational computer, given the track required, wind velocity, and true air speed; prepare a route card for the flight, flying by map reading.


Theory Of Flight

1) Describe the airflow over the wing of an aircraft, and explain the meaning of: downwash, centre of pressure, aspect-ratio, angle of attack, stalling angle.

2) Analyse the drag on an aeroplane - wing drag, parasite drag, and cooling drag - and explain how the drag can be reduced.

3) Explain how the stalling speed may be reduced by the use of slots and/or flaps.

4) Understand what stability means in the three planes, and how it is achieved.

5) Understand the meaning of: dihedral, yawing, rolling, pitching, sideslip, aileron drag, slip-stream and mass balance.

6) Explain the use of trimming devices.

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